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    “Investigating the Effects of I-55 On the Culture of Route 66 Communities In Illinois” by Monica Davila

    Introduction The first few decades of the 1900s were a pivotal turning point for transportation in the United States. In 1910, there were approximately 180,000 registered vehicles in the country, and by 1920 the number had grown to over 17 million (“Before 1926: The Origins of Route 66”). However, while Americans were finding it more affordable to travel by car, only 36,000 of the nation’s 2.5 million miles of road were paved and capable of withstanding automobile traffic (“Before 1926: The Origins of Route 66”). Noticing the vital need for all-weather roads, the federal government passed the Federal Highway Act of 1921, which provided states with the funds needed to…

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    “Shape Up or Ship Out: The Effect of No Child Left Behind on Teachers’ Methods of Teaching” by Ingrid Rodriguez

    Introduction and Significance For years, state governments have attempted to find strategies to improve the quality of education for children. Though many initiatives have been taken, few have succeeded. George W. Bush hoped to change this. Three days after taking office in January of 2001 as the 43rd President of the United States, George W. Bush announced No Child Left Behind (NCLB), his framework for bipartisan education reform. Describing it as the cornerstone of his administration, Bush stated: “These reforms express my deep belief in our public schools and their mission to build the mind and character of every child, from every background, in every part of America.”[1] Although he…

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    “Countering Public Perceptions of Religion: Faith Communities in Support of LGBT Equality” by Michelle Lin

    Beneath the heated political debates between interest groups arguing for and against same-sex marriage, there has been a gradual change in public opinion. Today, the percentage of people who believe homosexual couples should have the same marriage rights as heterosexual couples has doubled to 53 percent, as compared to 1996, from a December USA/Gallup Poll.[1] Surveys conducted in 2011 by the Pew Forum[2] and the Washington Post-ABC News[3] poll also reflect the growing public approval rating for gay marriage in America. This brings to light a monumental shift in societal attitudes towards LGBT individuals, where for the first time in history, the majority of Americans now show approval for same-sex…

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    “Collaboration, Resistance, and State-Sanctioned Journalism in Vichy France” by Nicholas Matthews

    Introduction Wartime censorship of the press was far from an unusual occurrence during the Second World War. Government efforts to control the headlines, whether through volition or compulsion, were a logical byproduct of the nescience that characterized the information flows of the early and mid-20th century. But what of censorship in occupied countries? In France, the Third Republic censored the media prior to its surrender in 1940, and censorship continued in earnest with the introduction of Vichy and the commencement of the German occupation. These were, of course, two entirely separate experiences. I shall examine the latter of these experiences—state-sanctioned journalism under Vichy. Vichy journalism had many clashing agents and…

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    “To Know a Hottentot Venus Feminist: Feminist Epistemology and the Artworks Surrounding Sarah Bartman” by Kayleigh Perkov

    Taken from her home in South Africa and displayed across Europe for her “exotic” body, Sarah Baartman (1789-1815) was transformed from an individual to a symbol of Otherness. Since the 1980s, Baartman has re-emerged as part of a discourse on post-colonialism, gender, sexuality and race theory. The scientific “facts” of Baartman have been refuted by Stephen Jay Gould[1], explored and examined in scholarly discourse by Sander Gilman[2] and Sadiah Qureshi[3], and reflected upon by countless individuals who have looked both at her history and their own lives. This paper attempts to examine how the contemporary artists Renée Green, Penny Siopis, Coco Fusco, Guillermo Gomez-Pena, and Tracey Rose have used Sarah Baartman to…

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    “Challenges and Opportunities for a Clean Technology Revolution: A Venture Capital Perspective” by Varun Mehra

    Introduction Climate change and global warming have put markets, governments, and society in a unique yet pressing situation; standing idly by as carbon emissions and pollution externalities exacerbate current climate conditions is not a viable solution to economic prosperity. However, there does not need to be a negative correlation between environmental degradation and GDP growth. In order to meet the needs of rising populations, markets must rethink their energy dependence and move towards achieving low-carbon growth. If one looks at the major source of energy in today’s world, it took an enormous amount of time, policy implementation, and infrastructure development for coal and oil to receive significant slices of America’s…

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    “The Fetishization of the Panopticon” by Kailey Giordano

    An analysis of the transformation of the Panopticon from Foucault to the present. The form of wood, for instance, is altered if a table is made out of it. Nevertheless the table continues to be wood, an ordinary, sensuous thing. But as soon as it emerges as a commodity, it changes into a thing which transcends sensuousness. It not only stands with its feet on the ground, but, in relation to all other commodities, it stands on its head, and evolves out of its wooden brain grotesque ideas far more wonderful than if it were to begin dancing of its own free will.1 I. Punishment In order to understand the…

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    “An Acceptable Scandal? A Study of Public Response to Xenophobic Political Rhetoric in Germany” by Melis Tusiray

    A man was sent to the hospital after being attacked by two men who called him a “dirty foreigner,” police said on Saturday. The man suffered head injuries and bruising after his attackers struck him with a bottle in a street of the Lichtenberg ward in the east of the Berlin This did not occur during the height of Nazi power. Nor did it occur after World War II as a result of Neo-Nazi backlash. This occurred in 2007, over 50 years after Germany began trying to overcome its troubled past. Many argue that incidents such as this one are the result of a minority of violent extremists, that such…

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    “Typhoid: Lessons from India and Pakistan UCLA Department of International Development Studies” by Hannah Spero

    Although typhoid fever was first described in 1829, by Dr. P. Ch. A. Louis, there is a surprisingly modest amount of knowledge about the disease today.1 Typhoid has remained a major public health concern since Dr. Louis identified its distinguishing lesions, with the British Medical Journal publishing articles about the disease dating back to 1897, in which it discussed an outbreak amongst “natives of India.”2 The first vaccine was produced in 1896, and there were discussions in 1897 of producing an improved vaccine.3 More practical vaccines were available by 1928, with the first trials being administered in 1937.4 However, those breakthroughs were nearly a century ago, and little progress has been…

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    “Security in the Real World: Gender Security, Globalization, and Women In India” by Madeleine Stokes

    Introduction Globalization since the 1990s has transformed the nature of international and local relations. First and foremost, it has created awareness for human insecurities around the world, through the diffusion of global norms. Globalization has spread awareness for women’s insecurity, for example. Now, global norms tout women’s rights and integration. Although women’s insecurity has always been prevalent, our awareness of the phenomenon has increased since globalization. The emergent norm of gender equality and human rights calls to attention the limits to these norms, as we continue to see overt examples of women’s insecurity. We see more clearly some inconsistencies and flaws in our system of governance, because we are aware…